*Nitric Oxide and the Endothelium: History and Impact on Cardiovascular Disease
Abstract: Vascular Biology Center, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USA
There are few discoveries with the magnitude of the impact that NO has had on biology during the 25 years since its discovery. There is hardly a disease today not associated with altered No homeostasis. There is no doubt that endothelial and NO-dysfunction is a hallmark of cardiovascular disease, including diseases which are considered as major current public health concerns: hypertension, obesity, diabetes, malnutrition. In many cases cardiovascular disease (CVD) can be prevented by identifying and controlling modifiable risk factors. This can be realized by supplementing co-factors, e.g. BH4, or substrate, L-arginine .... There is tremendous promise behind No itself as well as well as the numerous other molecules and processes associated with the L-arginine-NO-cGMP pathway.

*Nitric Oxide in Hypertension
Abstract: Department of Cardiology, the Cardiovascular Center, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland
Hypertension is a major factor for cardiovascular disease.... Endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by impairment of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, is an important risk factor for both hypertension and cardiovascular disease and may represent a major link between the conditions....NO plays a major role in regulating blood pressure and that impaired NO bioactivity is an important component of hypertension ...... Impaired No bioactivity is also implicated in arterial stiffness, a major mechanism of systolic hypertension.

*The Role of Nitric Oxide in Inflammatory Reactions
Abstract: Immunology Group, ICGEB, New Delhi, India
NO is an intercellular messenger that has been recognized as one of the most versatile players in the immune system. ...Activated macrophages inhibit pathogen replication by releasing a variety of effector molecules, including NO. Thus, NO is important as a toxic defense molecule against infectious organisms. It also regulates the functional activity, growth and death of many immune and inflammatory cell types.....

*Nitric Oxide-Releasing Nanoparticles accelerate Wound Healing
Abstract: Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, Yew York, USA
Long-term wounds remain a challenging clinical problem, affecting approximately 6 million patients per year, with a high economic impact. ...these wounds render the individual susceptible to life-threatening microbial infections. ... In recent years, nitric oxide (no) has emerged as a critical molecule in wound healing, ... The NO nanoparticles significantly accelerated wound healing. No-releasing nanoparticles have the ability to modulate and accelerate wound healing in a pleiotropic manner. (producing more than one effect)

*The role of Nitric Oxide in Tendon Healing
Abstract: Orthopaedic Research Institute, University of New South Wales, The St. George Hospital, Sydney, Australia
Nitric Oxide (NO) is a small free radical that is generated by a family of enzymes called the nitric oxide synthases (NOS). In cultured human cells, the addition of NO via chemical means resulted in enhanced collagen synthesis. We performed 3 randomized, double-blinded clinical trials that demonstrated a significant positive beneficial effect of No treatment on clinical symptoms and function in patients’ demonstrated significant long-term efficacy.

*Nitric Oxide and Geriatrics: Implications in Diagnostics and Treatment of the Elderly.
Abstract: Texas Therapeutics Institute, Brown Foundation Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
Studies in experimental models and even humans reveal that constitutive production of nitric oxide (NO) is reduced with aging and this circumstance may be relevant to a number of diseases that plague the aging population. No is a multifunctional signaling molecule, intricately involved with maintaining a host of physiological processes including, but not limited to, host defense, neuronal communication and the regulation of vascular tone. NO is one of the most important signaling molecules in our body, and loss of No function is one of the earliest indicators or markers of disease. Clinical studies provide evidence that insufficient NO production is associated with all major cardiovascular risk factors, such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, smoking and severity of atherosclerosis, and also has a profound predictive value for disease progression including cardiovascular and Alzheimers disease. Implementing strategies to diagnose and treat NO insufficiency may provide enormous benefit to the geriatric patient.

*Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide in Kidney Function
Abstract: Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Georgetown University, Washington, DC
Nitric Oxide is a potent, endogenous vasodilator that regulates systemic blood pressure and renal function, among other function. A regulatory role for nitric oxide in the control of the renal microcirculation and as a participant in tubule function is further described. New information of the cause and possible prevention of acute and chronic renal failure has also been produced in the last year. These advances demonstrate the value of research in the normal and pathological roles of oxidative stress and nitric oxide in the kidney.

*Nitric Oxide in the Human Hair Follicle
Abstract: Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center Benjamin Franklin, Free University of Berlin, Germany
The free radical nitric oxide, generated by different types of epidermal and derma cells, has been identified as an important mediator in various physiological and pathophysiological processes of the skin, such as regulation of blood flow, melanogenesis, would healing and hyperproliferative skin diseases.

*Towards Nitric Oxide Based Diagnostics: Call to Action
Letter: “Trends in Molecular Medicine” Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas-Austin, Austin TX
“Maintaining No homeostasis is crucial for optimal health and disease prevention, and developing novel and accurate biomarkers for No production or availability will probably lead to better diagnostics and treatment strategies for a host of human diseases and have a profound effect on public health. In this letter, we make a strong case for the need for rapid validation of useful and accurate No based biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic utility in the clinical setting.”
“A report by Kleinbongard et al. demonstrated that plasma nitrite levels in humans progressively decrease with increasing cardiovascular risk load. Risk factors considered included age, hypertension, smoking and hypercholesterolemia, conditions all known to reduce the bioavailability of NO. ....This letter has focused on the role of NO and its metabolites as biomarkers for human disease. ... Ultimately, determining the levels of these versatile biomarkers by rapid, easy-to-use and bedside point-of-care assays after adequate validation will be a real testament to their role in molecular medicine. It is prudent at this juncture for concentrated and combined efforts in the field to validate and develop a standard and accurate assay for determining No status in humans.”